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   Table of Contents - Current issue
May-August 2020
Volume 4 | Issue 2
Page Nos. 39-71

Online since Monday, June 8, 2020

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Dental negligence: It is time to overcome it p. 39
Shail Kumari, Sunil Kumar Mishra, Ramesh Chowdhary
Dentistry is an honorable profession, but the relationship between the patient and the dentist has changed drastically in the last 20 years. Anxiety has risen in the community and dental profession due to patients' increased tendency to file legal cases against dentists. Thus, awareness of ethics and medicolegal matters is essential for every dental practitioner. This review was conducted to find exact literature related to dental negligence, dentist awareness of negligence, dental consent, and the Consumer Protection Act. An attempt has also been made to inform dentists that they must follow certain protocols to avert lawsuits due to illegal and/or negligent dental practice. In December 2019, the PubMed, Medline, and EBSCOhost databases were electronically searched for published literature, and 648 articles were screened. A manual search was also conducted to retrieve articles of interest. Titles and abstracts related to the topic of interest and available in English were screened and included in the study. Patient consent must be obtained in written before any treatment procedure. Dentists must be aware of dental negligence, as well as the laws governing it, and should be insured under professional indemnity insurance (“defense costs”). In the event of legal proceedings, this provides protection and financial support for case settlement and other expenses.
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The effect of repeated preheating on diametral tensile strength of composite resin with different fillers p. 44
Ellen Winarta, Tien Suwartini, Anastasia Elsa Prahasti, Rosalina Tjandrawinata
Background: The development of adhesive systems has made the removal of carious lesion a minimally invasive procedure. Composite resin is the material of choice today, but the filler composition of the resin varies. Packable composite resin has good mechanical properties, but its high viscosity makes it hard to manipulate. Several methods, such as preheating, are used to decrease this viscosity. A syringe of composite resin might be preheated several times, but the effect of repeated preheating is unknown. Objectives: The purpose of this research was to analyze the effect of repeated preheating on the mechanical properties of a composite resin with different fillers. Method: Microhybrid, nanohybrid, and nanofill composite resins were preheated (ten times, twenty times, and control), molded into cylinder molds 6 mm in diameter and 3 mm in height, flattened with a celluloid strip, and polymerized with an light-emitting diode light-curing unit for 40 s. A total of 180 specimens were tested. The specimens were divided into two groups: Group 1 was immediately tested using a universal testing machine. Group 2 was soaked in 37°C artificial saliva for 24 h before testing. Each specimen was tested using the universal testing machine with the pressure side with a 1 mm/s crosshead speed. Result: Nanohybrid composite resin had the most stable diametral tensile strength after repeated preheating, whereas nanofill composite had the weakest strength. The increase and decrease in the diametral tensile strength in each group were not statistically significant. Conclusion: Repeated preheating does not significantly affect the diametral tensile strength of composite resin.
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The effectiveness of mixtures of tetracycline, acid and detergent, and mixtures of chlorhexidine and ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid in preventing the growth of Enterococcus faecalis: An Ex vivo study p. 49
Tien Suwartini, Elfira Anggraini, Meiny Faudah Amin, Boedi Oetomo Roeslan
Background: Sodium hypochlorite (5.25% NaOCl) is the gold standard among irrigation solutions, but it is toxic to periapical tissue, decreases the micromechanical characteristics of dentin, has no effect on smear layer removal, and may not completely eradicate biofilms. Therefore, many new irrigation solutions, such as mixtures of tetracycline, citric acid, and detergent (MTAD) and a mixture of chlorhexidine (CHX) and ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA) have been introduced as the alternatives to NaOCl. Objectives: The objectives of this study are to analyze the differences in the effects of MTAD and mixtures of CHX and EDTA on the growth of Enterococcus faecalis ex vivo.Methods: This study used 28 lower premolars, divided into seven groups. Group I received MTAD. Group II received MTAD with CHX. Group III received a mixture of CHX and EDTA. Group IV received a 2% CHX solution. Group V received 17% EDTA. Group VI received a 5.25% NaOCl solution, which served as the positive control, and Group VII received sterile distilled water, which was the negative control. The effectiveness of various irrigation solutions in preventing the growth of E. faecalis was measured by the zone of growth inhibition and colony counts. Results: A one-way analysis of variance revealed a significant difference among the tested irrigation solutions, both in terms of zone inhibition of E. faecalis and E. faecalis colonies counting (P < 0.05). Conclusion: There was a different antibacterial effect between MTAD and the mixture of CHX and EDTA. MTAD were more effective as irrigation solution compared to the mixture of CHX and EDTA. However, as irrigation solutions, both were less effective than 5.25% NaOCl.
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The effect of 10% forest honey rinsing on dental plaque score for children aged 9–12 years p. 54
Ulfa Yasmin, Sulistiawati, Hema Awalia, Budi Asri, Fairuz Mudiah
Background: Effective plaque control can be achieved mechanically (by toothbrushing), but there are alternatives such as mouthwashes. However, recently, mouthwashes have been shown to have adverse effects on oral health. Honey is an herbal medicine that is easy to find, and it has antibacterial and has no side effects on oral health. Objectives: This study aimed to determine the effect of rinsing with a 10% forest honey mouthwash on the dental plaque score of children aged 9–12 years. Methods: The study was quasi-experimental and used a pre- and posttest, control group design. A total of 52 children (students 9–12 years) were divided into two groups with identical mean plaque scores. The control group rinsed with distilled water and the test group rinsed with a forest honey (10%) solution. The children were instructed to rinse three times daily for 30 s with 10 ml of mouthwash and to continue for 4 days. The data were analyzed using the dependent and independent t-test. Results: The results showed a significant difference in the dental plaque score for the test group (P < 0.001): the pretest average was 2.22 ± 0.59 and the posttest (after 4 days of rinsing) was 1.51 ± 0.57. The dental plaque score for the control group (rinsing with distilled water) showed an insignificant increase (P > 0.05) from the pretest (2.18 ± 0.73) to the posttest (2.22 ± 0.89). Conclusion: Rinsing with a forest honey solution has a positive effect on the reduction of dental plaque in children aged 9–12 years.
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Correlation between body mass index with anterior crowding and enamel hypoplasia of sundanese children in Bandung p. 59
Linda Sari Sembiring, Loes D Sjahruddin, Yohana Yusra
Background: Nutrition affects the growth of bones and teeth. Malnutrition can cause teeth to become irregular and undergo enamel hypoplasia (EH). To assess malnutrition, the body mass index (BMI) can be used. Objective: This study aims to analyze the correlation of BMI with anterior crowding and EH in Sundanese children aged 9–12 years. Method: This analytic observational study with a cross-sectional design was done in four public elementary schools in Bandung taken by random cluster sampling. The study subjects comprised 208 children, with 90 boys and 118 girls. Data analysis used correlation coefficients with the Kolmogorov–Smirnov normality test. Result: The probability value of the correlation between BMI and anterior crowding was 0.24, which meets the significance level (α <0.05). The probability value between the BMI and EH was 0.102, which is not significant (α >0.05). Conclusion: There is a correlation between BMI and anterior crowding, but there is no correlation between BMI and EH.
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Knowledge and attitude differences among students at dental-education institutions as a result of interprofessional education p. 64
Marta Juslily, Tri Erri Astoeti, Adang Bachtiar
Background: Interprofessional education (IPE) is an integrated-learning concept designed to improve the collaborative ability of health workers through multi-professional learning. To allow dental graduates to perform collaborative practices with other health practitioners and to support quality services at health-care facilities, IPE must be implemented throughout Indonesian dental-education institutions (DEIs). Objective: The aim of this study is to analyze the differences in knowledge and attitude between students from DEIs that have implemented IPE and those who have not. Method: Descriptive analytic observational research with cross-sectional design. Knowledge is measured via a questionnaire designed by the authors, and attitude is measured using the interprofessional-attitude-scale questionnaire. The total sample consists of 249 students from 3 DEIs: 90 from the Universtas Gadjah Mada (UGM), 76 from Universitas Muhamadiyah Yogyakarta (UMY), and 83 from Universitas Trisakti (Usakti). The subjects were selected purposively using a total sampling method. Result: Statistical testing shows that students from DEIs that have implemented IPE better understand the benefits, competencies, and approach of IPE with a P < 0.05. The Kruskal–Wallis test for attitude also found better results for students from DEIs that had implemented IPE in terms of teamwork, role and responsibility, interprofessional bias, and diversity and ethics with a P < 0.05. Conclusion: There were differences in student knowledge and attitude due to the implementation of IPE at DEIs. Students from universities that have implemented IPE (UGM, UMY) appear to have better knowledge and attitude than students from those that have not (Usakti). However, in several aspects, there were no significant differences between the two groups of students.
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