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   Table of Contents - Current issue
Coverpage
January-April 2019
Volume 3 | Issue 1
Page Nos. 1-39

Online since Friday, March 15, 2019

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ORIGINAL ARTICLES  

Lower facial height and soft tissue changes in bimaxillary protrusion cases p. 1
Kasmawaricin , Nurhayati Harahap, Amalia Oeripto
DOI:10.26912/sdj.v3i1.3633  
Background: Bimaxillary protrusion is frequently treated by extracting the four first premolars and retracting the incisor with maximum anchorage. This treatment may result in soft tissue changes, particularly in lip retraction, lip thickness, upper lip angle and nasolabial angle. However, the changes in facial height after orthodontic treatment often trigger controversies. Objectives: To determine the effects of incisor retraction on lower facial height and soft tissue changes in Class I malocclusion with bimaxillary protrusion treated by the extraction of the four first premolars. Methods: Pretreatment and post-treatment lateral cephalometric radiograph samples of 25 patients treated with the standard Edgewise fixed appliance were collected. Each sample was traced and a reference line perpendicular to Sella-Nasion minus 7° through the true vertical line (TVL) was established. Arnett analysis was applied to calculate incisor retraction, lower facial height, lip retraction, lip thickness, upper lip angle and nasolabial angle changes. The results of the measurements were statistically analyzed using a paired T-test and Pearson correlation. Results: No statistically significant changes were found between upper incisor retraction and lower facial height (p > 0.05) and upper lip thickness (p > 0.05). The same lower incisor retraction occurred with lower facial height (p > 0.05) and lower lip thickness (p > 0.05). Significant positive correlation was found between upper incisor retraction and the changes in the upper lip retraction (r = 0.959, p < 0.05), upper lip angle (r = 0.775, p < 0.05) and nasolabial angle (r = 0.647, p < 0.05), while the lower incisor retraction had a positive correlation with the changes in lower lip retraction (r = 0.902, p < 0.05). Conclusion: The extraction of the four first premolars followed by the retraction of the incisor can cause changes in lip retraction, upper lip angle and nasolabial angle but not in lower facial height and lip thickness.
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The effects of different bracket types on orthodontic treatment evaluated with the objective grading system p. 9
Suli Andryani, Nazruddin , Siti Bahirrah
DOI:10.26912/sdj.v3i1.3634  
Background: Standard edgewise and preadjusted Roth are two bracket types widely used for orthodontic treatment. Whether one of these bracket types offers better treatment results than the other requires further evaluation. The Objective Grading System created by the American Board of Orthodontics (ABO) is one of the most reliable indices used to evaluate treatment outcomes. Objectives: To determine the effects of using two different bracket types on treatment outcomes by using the Objective Grading System. Methods: The sample for this study consisted of 64 randomly selected post-treatment dental casts and panoramic radiographs. Of these samples, 32 were treated with a standard edgewisebracket, and the others were treated with a preadjusted Roth bracket. Patient samples were included if they had nonextraction Class I malocclusion (minor crowding < 4 mm for both bracket types, ANB = 2° ± 2°), no history of dental trauma, complete teeth (except third molars), and no growth or development disturbances. All samples were evaluated using eight parameters of the Objective Grading System and statistically analyzed using Mann–Whitney and chi-squared tests. The score range for each tooth in each parameter was 0 – 2. Results: The total score was 19.00 ± 12.00 for the standard edgewise bracket and 15.00 ± 7.00 for the preadjusted Roth bracket, with no statistically significant differences between the two bracket types (p = 0.149). There were also no statistically significant differences in the scores of the eight parameters of the Objective Grading System between these brackets (p > 0.05). The highest score was found for the buccolingual inclination parameter, and the lowest score was for interproximal contacts. Conclusion: According to the Objective Grading System, there are no statistically significant differences between the orthodontic treatment outcomes obtained using a standard edgewise or a preadjusted Roth bracket.
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Compatibility of types III/IV Gypsum with addition silicone impression material p. 17
Elysia Santini, Octarina
DOI:10.26912/sdj.v3i1.3664  
Background: Addition silicone is an elastomeric impression material used to obtain an accurate impression. Compatibility between impression material and gypsum will affect the surface quality of the resulting models. Types III and IV gypsum are very commonly used in dentistry to pour impressions and produce working models; despite this, there has been no further research regarding the differences between the two types in terms of compatibility with addition silicone impression materials. Objectives: To compare the compatibility of types III and IV gypsum with addition silicone impression materials. Methods: Gypsum compatibility was assessed on the basis of its ability to reproduce lines of certain widths. Thirty samples were produced by impressing a stainless steel ruled block (in accordance with ANSI/ADA Specification No. 19) with addition silicone (independent variable) and then pouring in type III or IV gypsum (dependent variable). The samples were divided into two groups: in Group A, addition silicone was poured with type III gypsum; in Group B, addition silicone was poured with type IV gypsum. The lines from the stainless steel ruled block that formed in the gypsum samples were observed with a microscope at 10x magnification. Each line was then assessed with a score from 1 to 4, according to Morrow's standardization, where a score of 1 indicates that the line was reproduced clearly and sharply over its entire 25 mm length, and a score of 4 indicates that the line is reproduced incompletely with roughness and/or blemishes. The data were analyzed using the Mann–Whitney U test. Results: Group B (addition silicone poured with type IV gypsum) produced more results rated as 1 (60% of the group's samples) than Group A (only 46.67% of the group's samples). Conclusion: On the basis of the number of scores rated as 1, type IV gypsum was more compatible than type III gypsum with addition silicone.
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CASE REPORTS Top

Bimaxillary orthognathic surgery in skeletal class III malocclusion p. 23
Stephanus Christianto, Yiu Yan Leung
DOI:10.26912/sdj.v3i1.3662  
Background: Skeletal Class III malocclusions can vary in severity, with different levels of treatment available to reflect this variance. In cases of moderate to severe skeletal discrepancy, orthodontic treatment in conjunction with orthognathic surgery is a common treatment option. This case report outlines an orthosurgical treatment approach for a patient with severe skeletal Class III malocclusion. Case Report: A 23-year-old female presented with skeletal Class III malocclusion. Pre-surgical orthodontic treatment was done after 1.5 years. The lateral profile view showed a concave profile, incompetent lip closure, deficiency in paranasal area, acute nasolabial angle, and obtuse labiomental fold. Intraorally, she had a negative 5.5 mm overjet and 2 mm overbite. The surgical procedures performed included high-level Le Fort I osteotomy, bilateral intraoral vertical ramus osteotomies (IVRO), and genioplasty. Conclusion: The treatment of skeletal Class III dentofacial deformity should be planned according to the malocclusion and facial profile to achieve a functional and esthetic outcome. A systematic treatment plan that takes into consideration the patient's expectations and concerns must be created and implemented for a satisfactory outcome.
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Oral opportunistic infections in patient with HIV wasting syndrome p. 31
Mega Rafika, Tenny Setiani Dewi
DOI:10.26912/sdj.v3i1.3608  
Background: Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) wasting syndrome is a condition in which weight loss, fever, and chronic diarrhea occur for more than 30 days without any causes other than HIV infection. HIV causes an immunocompromised condition resulting in susceptibility to infection. The opportunistic infections are oral candidiasis, herpes simplex virus (HSV), and tuberculosis. This study aims to explain oral opportunistic infections in a patient with wasting syndrome. Case Report: A 20-year-old female, who was 165 cm in height and 33.75 kg in weight, with wasting syndrome, pulmonary tuberculosis, oral candidiasis, and angular cheilitis was referred from an internist in Hasan Sadikin Hospital. Extraoral examination showed a yellowish brownish crust on the lips. Intraoral examination showed multiple ulcers covered by a yellowish membrane on the labial mucosa. The white plaques were scrapable, and an erythematous was found on the dorsum of the tongue, buccal mucosa, and palate. Laboratory results revealed a decrease in hemoglobin, hematocrit, leucocyte, erythrocyte, basophil, neutrophil, lymphocyte, albumin, reactive anti-HSV IgG, CD4 16 cell/μl, mycology culture test, chest x-ray, and sputum. On the basis of anamnesis, clinical features, and laboratory examination, the patient was diagnosed with stomatitis herpetica and oral candidiasis. Chlorhexidine gluconate 0.2%, nystatin oral suspension, vitamin B12, folic acid, and vaseline album were administered on the lips. Clinical recovery of oral candidiasis was accomplished after five weeks of therapy. Conclusion: Opportunistic infections in patient with wasting syndrome are oral candidiasis, herpetic stomatitis, and tuberculosis.
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