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ORIGINAL ARTICLES
A case report of angiosarcoma of maxillary gingiva: Histopathology aspects
Firstine Kelsi Hartanto, Shin Hin Lau
May-August 2018, 2(2):77-83
DOI:10.26912/sdj.v2i2.2681  
Background: Angiosarcoma is a rare malignant tumor, which most often occurs in the skin and soft tissue. Its occurrence in the head and neck region, and the intraoral region in particular, is uncommon. The aim of this case report is to highlight the importance of histopathological examination and to underscore the characteristic features of angiosarcoma. Case report: A 52-year-old female presented with a growth in the right maxillary portion of the interdental region of her molar teeth. The growth had been present for approximately one month. A computerized tomography (CT) scan showed metastatic tumors in the lungs, liver, bone, and soft tissue of maxillary gingiva. Intraoral examination found a soft and mobile pedunculated ovoid mass at the right palatal gingiva; the mass was reddish-blue in color. An incisional biopsy was performed to confirm the diagnosis and plan for further treatment. Histopathologic examination revealed malignant endothelial cells in a vasoformative growth pattern, with numerous vascular channels lined with neoplastic endotheliumforming intraluminal buds, projections, and papillae. These projections were interspersed with the tumor cells. Immunohistochemistry analysis showed these endothelial cells demonstrated strong positive immunoreactivity with CD31, factor VIII, and FLi-1. A diagnosis of angiosarcoma was made. Discussion: Because intraoral angiosarcoma is rare and its clinical presentation can resemble other vascular lesions, it can be a challenging diagnosis for clinicians and pathologists. In the present case, the diagnosis of intraoral angiosarcoma was made based on clinical and histopathology findings. The microscopic features of malignant endothelial cells and the presence of intraluminal projections, supported by positive immunoreactivity with CD31, factor VIII, and FLi-1, confirmed the diagnosis. Conclusion: Angiosarcoma poses a diagnostic challenge to dental practitioners and oral pathologists due to the rarity of occurrence in the oral cavity. Histopathological examination is critical for an accurate diagnosis.
[ABSTRACT]   Full text not available  [PDF] [CITATIONS]
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Pomegranate juice inhibits periodontal pathogens biofilm In Vitro
Armelia Sari Widyarman, Olivia Puspita Suhalim, Dhara Nandary, Citra Fragrantia Theodorea
September-December 2018, 2(3):101-108
DOI:10.26912/sdj.v2i3.2572  
Background: Pomegranate (Punica granatum) fruits are commonly regarded as medicinal plant in Indonesia, and the polyphenols found in pomegranate juice (punicalagin and ellagic acid) have been shown to have antibacterial properties. Objectives: Using monospecies and multispecies biofilms, we sought to examine the effects of pomegranate juice on the viability of three periodontal pathogens: Porphyromonas gingivalis, Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans, and Treponema denticola. Methods: Biofilm assays were performed using crystal violet. Pomegranate juice was obtained from pomegranates using a juicer, and the juice was then diluted into different concentrations with phosphate saline buffer. The three pathogens were cultured in both monospecies and multispecies plates. Pomegranate juice was then added to each biofilm well. These were then incubated for 1h, 6h, or 24h, after which the optical density (OD) of the biofilm mass was measured using a microplate-reader (490 nm). Biofilm without treatment was used as a negative control and 0.2% chlorhexidine gluconate as a positive control. Data were analyzed with a one-way ANOVA; the level of significance was set at p<0.05. Results: Compared to the negative control, biofilm mass was significantly decreased after treatment with pomegranate juice across all concentrations and incubation times, for both monospecies and multispecies abiofilm (p<0.05). The best results were achieved with P. gingivalis biofilm, with 100% concentration (OD 0.34 ± 0.03); A. actinomycetemcomitans, 50% concentration (OD 0.22 ± 0.01); and T. denticola, with 25% concentration (OD 0.87 ± 0.08), as well as with a multispecies biofilm with a 50% concentration in 1h incubation time (OD 0.09 ± 0.02). Conclusion: Pomegranate juice effectively inhibited the biofilm formation of P. gingivalis, A. actinomycetemcomitans, and T. denticola. Pomegranate juice may therefore be used as an alternative therapy in preventing periodontal disease. Additional research should explore this effect in an environment that mimics oral cavities.
[ABSTRACT]   Full text not available  [PDF] [CITATIONS]
  2 496 138
Level of salivary uric acid in gingivitis and periodontitis patients
Muhammad Ihsan Rizal, Stiefani Vega
January-April 2017, 1(1):7-10
DOI:10.26912/sdj.2017.01.01-02  
Background: Periodontal disease is common chronic adult condition. Antioxidants are present in the body fluid as protection against free radical. Uric acid is one of antioxidants that can be found in saliva. Moreover, the relationship among the antioxidant enzymes activities and clinical periodontal status were investigated. Objectives: The aim of the study was to observe uric acid level activities in the saliva of gingivitis and periodontitis patients. Methods: Six patients with gingivitis and six patients with periodontitis in Dental Hospital Trisakti University were included in the study. Clinical condition of each subject, the plaque index, and probing depth were determined. The salivary uric acid level was measured using the Folin-Wu method. Result: Salivary uric acid levels in the periodontitis patients with a mean ± SD 7.40 ± 0.31 (p = 0.004) were found to be higher compared to the gingivitis patients (mean ± SD = 6.84 ± 0.19). In addition, there were no significant differences in salivary uric acid levels between gender (p = 0.641). Conclusion: Uric acid levels in periodontitis patients were found to be higher than in gingivitis patients. Moreover, uric acid has more role on periodontitis than in gingivitis as an antioxidant agent.
[ABSTRACT]   Full text not available  [PDF] [CITATIONS]
  1 378 96
Enzymatic activity of bromelain isolated pineapple (Ananas comosus) hump and its antibacterial effect on Enterococcus faecalis
Dewi Liliany, Armelia Sari Widyarman, Erni Erfan, Janti Sudiono, Melanie S Djamil
May-August 2018, 2(2):39-50
DOI:10.26912/sdj.v2i2.2540  
Background: Enterococcus faecalis is the frequent cause of oral infections, such as periodontitis, infected root canals, and peri-radicular abscesses. Pineapple (Ananas comosus) fruit contains bromelain, one of proteolytic enzymes associated with several health benefits. Bromelain has been shown to promote healthy digestion, stimulate the immune system, improve cardiovascular conditions, and accelerate wound healing. Bromelain compounds possess antiinflammatory and anticancer properties and exhibit antibacterial activity. Objectives: To analyze the enzymatic activity of bromelain extracted from pineapple hump and investigate the antibacterial effect of bromelain against E. faecalis. Methods: Pineapple hump was dried and extracted with maceration technique. Further purification was obtained by ammonium sulfate fractionation, dialysis and ion exchange chromatography. Minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) test using diffusion and dilution techniques tested the antibacterial activity of the bromelain extract towards E. faecalis. A one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) test analyzed the significance of the differences in the E. faecalis inhibition zones after treatment with a range of bromelain extract concentrations. Differences were considered statistically significant if p < 0.05. Results: The specific activity of bromelain in the crude extract was 62.89 U/mg. Furthermore, bromelain activity using ammonium sulfate fractionation was 50.99 U/mg, dialysis was 54.59 U/mg, and ion exchange chromatography was 152.38 U/mg. The bromelain extract showed effective inhibitory and bactericidal activity against E. faecalis. The results of the inhibition test using a bromelain extract purified by ion exchange chromatography demonstrated that a concentration as small as 12.5% was effective in inhibiting the growth of E. faecalis (p < 0.05). Conclusion: The highest enzymatic activity of bromelain was found after purification with ion exchange chromatography. Bromelain exerted an antibacterial effect against a potent endodontic pathogen, but further studies are needed to explore this effect.
[ABSTRACT]   Full text not available  [PDF] [CITATIONS]
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