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ORIGINAL ARTICLE
Year : 2020  |  Volume : 4  |  Issue : 3  |  Page : 84-87

The effect difference of chitosan nanoparticles, chitosan microparticles, and casein phosphopeptide–amorphous calcium phosphate in reducing enamel demineralization


1 Department of Pediatric Dentistry, Faculty of Dental Medicine, Universitas Brawijaya, Malang, East Java, Indonesia
2 Department of Dental Material, Faculty of Dental Medicine, Universitas Brawijaya, Malang, East Java, Indonesia
3 Undergraduate Program in Dentistry, Faculty of Dental Medicine, Universitas Brawijaya, Malang, East Java, Indonesia

Correspondence Address:
Mohammad Chair Effendi
Department of Pediatric Dentistry, Faculty of Dental Medicine, Universitas Brawijaya, Jl. Veteran, Malang, East Java
Indonesia
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Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None


DOI: 10.4103/SDJ.SDJ_41_20

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Background: Chitosan has been shown to inhibit free radicals that cause tooth enamel demineralization. Nano-sized chitosan can penetrate cell membranes that larger particles cannot penetrate. Objective: This study aimed to determine the difference between chitosan nanoparticles, chitosan microparticles, and casein phosphopeptide–amorphous calcium phosphate (CPP-ACP) in preventing tooth enamel demineralization. Methods: We used 0.2% chitosan nanoparticles. A total of 50 mL of chitosan solution was stirred and added in tripolyphosphate to prepare a nanoparticle suspension. It was then stirred for 1 h to generate crosslinking. The nanoparticles' size was 57.6 nm. The demineralization solution consisted of 2.2 mM/L CaCl2, 2.2 mM/L KH2PO4, and 50 mM of acetate buffer. Its acidity was regulated to a pH of 4.06. The sample consisted of 27 maxillary first premolar teeth post extraction due to orthodontic treatment needs divided into three groups: a chitosan microparticle treatment group, a chitosan nanoparticle treatment group, and a CPP-ACP treatment group used as a positive control. A scanning electron microscope with ×5000 magnification was used to observe the enamel surface morphology and mineral release. Results: The mean value of enamel surface microhardness in the chitosan nanoparticle group (233.39 HV) was significantly greater than those in the chitosan microparticle (153.192 HV) and CPP-ACP groups (152.626 HV) (P < 0.05). Moreover, the chitosan nanoparticle treatment resulted in the lowest enamel porosity. Conclusions: Chitosan nanoparticles are more effective than chitosan microparticles and CPP-APP in preventing enamel demineralization.


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