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   Table of Contents - Current issue
Coverpage
May-August 2021
Volume 5 | Issue 2
Page Nos. 57-99

Online since Wednesday, June 23, 2021

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ORIGINAL ARTICLES  

Estrogen-deficiency Effect on the Composition of Dental Enamel: A Pilot Study p. 57
Gustavo V de Oliveira Fernandes, Erika C Küchler, Marjorie A Omori, Guido A Marañón-Vasquez, Lucas R Teixeira, Jorge E Léon, Celia M C de França Lopes, Flares Baratto-Filho, Paulo Nelson-Filho, Raquel F Gerlach, Isabela R Madalena
DOI:10.4103/SDJ.SDJ_61_20  
Background: Tooth enamel mineralization is assumed to be a target of endogenous estrogen imbalances. Objective: To evaluate the effect of estrogen deficiency during amelogenesis on the mineral composition of dental enamel. Methods: Ten female Wistar Hannover rats were randomly divided into two groups according to the intervention received: ovariectomy surgery (OVX, experimental) and fictitious surgery (SHAM, control). After 21 days, the rats of both groups were euthanized, and the upper incisors were extracted for analysis of the mineral composition by energy-dispersive X-ray fluorescence. The sensitivity of the enamel organ to estrogen was evaluated in both groups by immunohistochemical analysis of the odontogenic region of the lower incisors for the presence of estrogen receptors alpha and beta (ERα and ERβ, respectively) in ameloblasts in the maturation stage. Differences in the mineral composition between groups were compared using Student’s t-test (P < 0.05). Results: No statistically significant difference was detected in the mineral composition between the OVX and SHAM groups (P > 0.05). ERα was immunostained in the ameloblasts of both groups. Conclusion: Although ameloblasts express ERα, estrogen deficiency during amelogenesis did not appear to affect the dental enamel composition in this murine model.
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The Association Between Parenting Styles and Feeding Styles on Early Childhood Caries p. 63
Nirmala Sari, Rosa Amalia, Aloysia Supartinah
DOI:10.4103/SDJ.SDJ_52_20  
Background: A parenting style (authoritarian, authoritative, and permissive) refers to a set of activities that parents perform to raise a child. A certain feeding style is influenced by a parenting style. The high intake of foods containing sugar without parental control can increase the incidence of early childhood caries (ECC). Objective: The Objective of this article is to analyze the association of parenting styles and feeding styles on the occurrence of ECC among children aged 3–5. Methods: The research was an analytical cross-sectional study. Data were collected from 105 pairs of mothers and children, selected through the purposive sampling technique in Yogyakarta. Type of parenting and feeding styles was obtained through questionnaires given to mothers, whereas intra-oral examination was used to detect the ECC in children using the decay-missing-filling-teeth (dmf-t) index. Data were collected and analyzed using multinominal logistic regression with a statistical significance at P < 0.05. Results: The prevalence of ECC and dmf-t among children with permissive parents was highest (63.84%; 7.51+5.97) when compared with those with authoritarian parents (26.21%; 3.09+4.23). Those with authoritative parents was lowest (9.95%; 1.17+1.65). Authoritative parenting is associated with less consumption of cariogenic foods and low occurrence of ECC (P < 0.05). Conclusion: Parenting styles have a direct association with feeding styles and ECC. Children with authoritative parents have a highest benefit on lowest risk of ECC when compared with other counterparts.
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Determination of the Fluoride Content of Malaysian Commercial Teas p. 68
Yunita Dewi Ardini, Zuhair Muhammad Asri, Muhammad Mujahid Azhar, Widya Lestari, Anisa Kusumawardani, Muhammad Salahuddin Haris
DOI:10.4103/SDJ.SDJ_56_20  
Background: Tea ranks first as the most-enjoyed beverage worldwide. Nevertheless, tea is rich in fluoride due to its uptake and storage from the soil by tea plants. Moreover, limited information is available regarding the fluoride content of Malaysian teas. Objective: This study aims to quantify the amount of fluoride present in teas available in the Malaysian market. Methods: An exploratory research was conducted on commercially available infusion teas from Peninsular Malaysia between November 2016 and December 2017. The fluoride content of 106 tea samples from three groups, viz., black, green, and other tea types, respectively, was measured using ultraviolet–visible spectrophotometry. The results were analyzed by one-way analysis of variance and independent t-test. Results: All of the tea leaf samples contained fluoride content between 0.01 and 1.08 mg/L. Black, green, and red tea exhibited significantly different contents of fluoride (P = 0.028). Conclusion: Significant amounts of fluoride were present in teas found in Malaysian markets. Our study provides Malaysian consumers key information regarding the amount of fluoride present in their teas.
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Comparison between nanohybrid filler and submicron composite resin shade on color changes after polymerization p. 74
Reynald Sebastian Irawan, Ade Prijanti Dwisaptarini, Elline Istanto, Janti Sudiono
DOI:10.4103/SDJ.SDJ_69_21  
Background: Initial color determination of composite resins before polymerization is crucial to achieve an esthetic result that mimics the original tooth color. A filler particle size and composition affect the color change of the composite resin after polymerization despite the improvement in the chemical composition and filler of the composite resin. Objective: The effects of nanohybrid filler and submicron composite resin shade on color changes after polymerization were determined. Methods: Disc-shaped composite resin samples (diameter and thickness of 12 mm and 2 mm, respectively) were categorized into six groups, with each group containing 10 plates, according to the shade and type of filler (nanohybrid UD1, UD2, UD3; submicron OA1, OA2, OA3). Digital photographs were taken before and after polymerization. The changes in color (ΔE*ab values) were determined using software via eLABor_aid. Result: Only the Micerium EHRi UD1 composite resin group exhibited ΔE*ab < 3.3. The independent t-test revealed significant differences in the ΔE*ab (P < 0.05) between the nanohybrid and submicron composite resins in all shade groups (A1, A2, and A3). One-way analysis of variance revealed significant differences in ΔE*ab (P < 0.05) among A1, A2, and A3 between the nanohybrid and submicron composite resin groups. Tukey’s post hoc test revealed significant differences in ΔE*ab (P < 0.05) for the Micerium EHRi UD1 group compared with those of the UD2 and UD3 groups, as well as in the case of the Tokuyama Palfique OA1 group compared with those of the OA2 and OA3 groups. Conclusion: Nanohybrid filler and submicron composite resin shade affected color changes after polymerization. Compared to the darker color groups, brighter shades (UD1 and OA1) exhibited a lower-intensity color change.
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Comparison of gingival health status and salivary magnesium levels in smokers and nonsmokers p. 79
Tania Kusuma Wijaya, Agus Susanto, Ina Hendiani
DOI:10.4103/SDJ.SDJ_72_21  
Background: Smoking is considered a major risk factor for the development and progression of periodontal diseases. The content of cigarettes can affect the composition of saliva, such as the levels of magnesium, calcium, and phosphate. Objectives: The purpose of this study is to compare gingival health status and salivary magnesium levels in smokers and nonsmokers. Materials and Methods: This research is a descriptive study based on a cross-sectional approach. Forty-two subjects participated in the study which was divided into two groups: smokers and nonsmokers. A purposive sampling technique was used, and a questionnaire was disseminated to collect data on age, gender, number of cigarettes smoked per day, duration of smoking, and types of cigarettes consumed. Oral health status was measured using the Löe and Silness gingival index. Saliva was collected using the spitting method, and salivary magnesium levels were measured by atomic absorption spectrometry. The data analysis was performed using the independent sample t-test and the Mann–Whitney test. Results: The gingival index scores for the smokers and nonsmokers were 0.49±0.195 and 0.26±0.207, respectively. There was a significant difference between smokers and nonsmokers gingival index (P = 0.001). The salivary magnesium levels in the smokers and nonsmokers were 54.43±17.37 and 51.29±15.97 µg/dL, respectively. There was no significant difference in the levels of magnesium saliva between the smokers and nonsmokers (P = 0.428). Conclusion: The findings of this study indicate that the gingival index in smokers is higher than that in nonsmokers. However, the results showed no difference in salivary magnesium levels between the smokers and nonsmokers in this study.
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Differences in Preparation Results of Two Reciprocal Ni-Ti Files with and Without Glide Path to the Changes on Root Canal Curvature p. 84
Christian Hanafi Susantio, Wiena Widyastuti, Anastasia E Prahasti, Rahmi Amtha
DOI:10.4103/SDJ.SDJ_75_21  
Background: Maintaining the anatomy of the root canal is crucial in root canal treatment. The super-elastic property of the nickel-titanium (Ni-Ti) file system provides advantages in preparation of curved root canals, as it can reduce the force on the root canal wall, increase centering ability, and reduce iatrogenic errors. Objective: The aim of this article is to determine the differences in preparation results of two reciprocal Ni-Ti files with and without glide path to the changes of root canal curvature. Materials and Methods: Twenty pieces of endodontic blocks (ISO# 15, 16 mm, 2% tapered) were divided into four randomly assigned groups. Group 1 (without glide path) and Group 2 (with glide path) were prepared with Wave One Gold (WOG). Group 3 (without glide path) and Group 4 (with glide path) were prepared with Reciproc Blue (RB). Each subject was explored using K-file #10. Glide path was prepared with ProGlider (PG) #16. Digital images of before and after the root canal preparations were taken using a digital camera with the same angle and distance settings. The before and after photos were superimposed on each other, and the transportation at the inner and outer root canal walls in the coronal curvature, apical curvature, and apical end points was measured with software. Results: No significant difference was found between changes in the coronal curvature using WOG and RB, with and without glide path (P > 0.05). The same result was observed between WOG and RB groups with glide path at each measurement point. Significant differences were found between changes in apical curvature and apical point in the inner wall using WOG and RB without glide path (P < 0.05). Conclusion: There were differences in root canal curvature prepared using WOG and RB on the apical region when prepared without glide path, but no differences were found when prepared with glide path at each point measurement.
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CASE REPORTS Top

Periodontal management of amlodipine-induced gingival hyperplasia in a hypertensive patient: A surgical approach p. 91
Houda El Ayachi, Oum Keltoum Ennibi
DOI:10.4103/SDJ.SDJ_59_20  
Background: Amlodipine is a third-generation dihydropyridine calcium channel blocker used to treat hypertension and angina. Gingival hyperplasia (GH) is an unwanted side effect associated with this therapy. It causes unsatisfactory esthetics, difficulty in maintaining good oral hygiene, abnormal tooth movement, and difficulty in mastication. GH can be managed by nonsurgical therapy alone or using a combination of nonsurgical and surgical therapy. Case Report: A 55-year-old female patient came to the clinical department of periodontology, University Hospital of Rabat, with a chief complaint of gingival enlargement. It was diagnosed and initially managed by nonsurgical periodontal treatment. Drug substitution and surgical intervention were executed. Regular supportive periodontal therapy showed a good and stable outcome over 2 years of follow-up. Conclusion: Amlodipine-induced GH can be managed using periodontal procedures combined with good oral hygiene and regular supportive periodontal therapy.
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Management of temporomandibular joint disorders using acupuncture: A case report p. 97
Ahila Singaravel Chidembaranathan
DOI:10.4103/SDJ.SDJ_70_21  
Background: Temporomandibular joint disorder (TMD) is a term for disease of the TMJ and the muscles attached to it. The symptoms and signs of TMD are clicking, crepitation, headache, and pain in and around the TMJ. Management of TMD includes dental approaches (e.g., splints, bite plates, and jaw exercises) and surgical approaches. Acupuncture is a Chinese medicine that consists of insertion of small solid stainless-steel needles into many acupoints on the body to improve health and relieve pain in the surrounding areas. Case Report: A 34-year-old male patient reported with severe pain in the right and left TMJ region and difficulty in opening of his mouth for the past 6 months. Extra-oral examination revealed tenderness on both sides of the face, deviation of the mouth toward the right side, the mouth opening was two finger breadths, and mild early-opening click. Intra-oral examination revealed the presence of 28 teeth. Orthopantogram did not show any changes in the condyle and articular eminence. The patient was initially treated with palliative therapy and then treated with acupuncture. Conclusion: Acupuncture is an alternative mode of treatment for persons with muscular TMD.
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